Patrick Barnes

Publication Details

  • Neuroimaging Advances in Holoprosencephaly: Refining the Spectrum of the Midline Malformation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART C-SEMINARS IN MEDICAL GENETICS Hahn, J. S., Barnes, P. D. 2010; 154C (1): 120-132

    Abstract:

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a complex congenital brain malformation characterized by failure of the forebrain to bifurcate into two hemispheres, a process normally completed by the fifth week of gestation. Modern high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed detailed analysis of the cortical, white matter, and deep gray structural anomalies in HPE in living humans. This has led to better classification of types of HPE, identification of newer subtypes, and understanding of the pathogenesis. Currently, there are four generally accepted subtypes of HPE: alobar, semilobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant. These subtypes are defined primarily by the degree and region of neocortical nonseparation. Rather than there being four discrete subtypes of HPE, we believe that there is a continuum of midline neocortical nonseparation resulting in a spectrum disorder. Many patients with HPE fall within the border zone between the neighboring subtypes. In addition, there are patients with very mild HPE, where the nonseparation is restricted to the preoptic (suprachiasmic) area. In addition to the neocortex, other midline structures such as the thalami, hypothalamic nuclei, and basal ganglia are often nonseparated in HPE. The cortical and subcortical involvements in HPE are thought to occur due to a disruption in the ventral patterning process during development. The severity of the abnormalities in these structures determines the severity of the neurodevelopmental outcome and associated sequelae.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.c.30238

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274471700015

    View details for PubMedID 20104607

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