William J. Maloney, MD

Publication Details

  • G-protein activity requirement for polymethylmethacrylate and titanium particle-induced fibroblast interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release in vitro JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH Trindade, M. C., Schurman, D. J., Maloney, W. J., Goodman, S. B., Smith, R. L. 2000; 51 (3): 360-368

    Abstract:

    Periprosthetic granulomatous membranes consisting of fibroblasts, macrophages, lymphocytes, foreign body giant cells, and abundant particulate debris occur at sites of implant loosening. Previous studies demonstrate that fibroblasts respond to particulate debris through the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E(2), and matrix metalloproteinases in vitro. C-C chemokines are observed in granulomatous tissue surrounding loosened prosthetic implants and are released by macrophages and fibroblasts in response to particle challenge in vitro. This study tested the hypothesis that G protein activity is required for fibroblast activation by titanium and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles, and that inhibition of G protein activity would alter IL-6 and and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) release from activated fibroblasts. The specific inhibitor of G protein activity, pertussis toxin, was added to the fibroblasts to examine the effects of G protein activity with respect to the production of IL-6 and MCP-1 by orthopedic biomaterial-challenged fibroblasts in vitro. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a proven activator of MCP-1 and interleukin-6, was used as a positive control. Exposure of fibroblasts to titanium and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles resulted in a dose-dependent release of MCP-1 and IL-6. Challenge with PMMA particles at doses of 0.150%, 0.300%, and 0.600% vol/vol increased the release of interleukin-6 by 7-, 19-, and 22-fold, respectively, compared to fibroblasts exposed to serum-free culture medium alone at 24 h. Challenge with PMMA particles at doses of 0.075%, 0.150%, 0.300%, and 0.600% vol/vol increased the release of MCP-1-6 by 2.5-, 3.6-, 4. 3-, and 4.5-fold, respectively, compared to fibroblasts exposed to serum-free culture medium alone. Challenge with titanium particles at concentrations of 0.075%, 0.150%, 0.300%, and 0.600% vol/vol increased the release of interleukin-6 by 2.6-, 6.4-, 9.6-, and 10. 0-fold, respectively, compared to fibroblasts exposed to serum-free culture medium alone at 24 h. Challenge with titanium particles at concentrations of 0.038%, 0.075%, 0.150%, 0.300%, and 0.600% vol/vol increased the release of MCP-1 by 2.9-, 3.1-, 5.8-, 5.4-, and 5. 8-fold, respectively, compared to fibroblasts exposed to serum-free culture medium alone. Pretreatment of fibroblasts with pertussis toxin inhibited the release of interleukin-6 and MCP-1 from PMMA and titanium particle challenged fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. PMMA particle induced fibroblast IL-6 release was inhibited by 23.6% and 35.3% with 20- and 200-ng/mL doses of pertussis toxin, respectively. Titanium particle induced fibroblast IL-6 release was inhibited by 48.2% and 56.3% with 20- and 200-ng/mL doses of pertussis toxin, respectively. PMMA particle-induced fibroblast MCP-1 release was inhibited by 36.0%, 50.4%, and 60.1% with 2-, 20- and 200-ng/mL doses of pertussis toxin, respectively. Titanium particle-induced fibroblast MCP-1 release was inhibited by 15.5%, 53.2%, and 64.6% with 2-, 20-, and 200-ng/mL doses of pertussis toxin, respectively. This study suggests that fibroblasts localized in periprosthetic membranes are a source of macrophage chemoattractant factors and proinflammatory mediators that may influence granuloma formation and lead to periprosthetic bone resorption. Furthermore, this study shows that G proteins are involved in particle-induced fibroblast activation, as evidenced by decrease levels of particle induced IL-6 and MCP-1 release following pertussis toxin treatment. (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087914500009

    View details for PubMedID 10880077

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