Gerald Reaven, MD

Publication Details

  • Insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia predict carotid intimal medial thickness in patients with essential hypertension NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES Zavaroni, I., Ardigo, D., Zuccarelli, A., Pacetti, E., Piatti, P. M., Monti, L., Valtuena, S., Massironi, P., Rossi, P. C., Reaven, G. M. 2006; 16 (1): 22-27


    Approximately 50% of subjects with essential hypertension (EH) are insulin resistant, and this defect in insulin action could contribute to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in these patients. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to see if there was a link between insulin resistance (IR) and carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT), an early index of CVD, in patients with essential hypertension.Ultrasound quantification of carotid IMT was performed in 79 hypertensive patients, and 63 patients (31 m and 32 f), defined as being free of plaque (IMT < 1.3 mm), were further subdivided into normal (<1.0 mm) and thickened (1-1.3 mm) IMT groups. Subjects in the thickened IMT group were older and had significantly (p < 0.05) higher plasma concentrations of fasting insulin, nitric oxide (NO(x)) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). However, the two groups were not significantly different in terms of blood pressure, overall or regional obesity, fasting lipid levels, uric acid, concentrations of other cellular adhesion molecules or levels of C-reactive protein. There were significant (p < 0.05) correlations in the whole population between IMT and age, fasting insulin and NO(x), and multiple regression analysis identified fasting insulin as an independent predictor of IMT.The presence of increased IMT is significantly related to several metabolic and endothelial abnormalities associated with IR/hyperinsulinemia, and fasting insulin independently predicts the thickness of the intima-media layer. These results support the view that CVD risk is greatest in those patients with essential hypertension who are also IR/hyperinsulinemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.numecd.2004.11.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235530000004

    View details for PubMedID 16399488

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