Inder Perkash

Publication Details

  • Donald Munro Lecture 2003. Neurogenic bladder: past, present, and future. journal of spinal cord medicine Perkash, I. 2004; 27 (4): 383-386


    The foundation of the management of neurogenic bladder can be attributed to a pioneer in spinal cord injury medicine. Dr. Donald Munro, a neurosurgeon, who also had experience in urologic surgery, established the first Spinal Cord Injury Service of 10 beds in the Boston City hospital in the 1930s. He later became adviser to the US Army and the Veterans Administration (VA). On his recommendation, paraplegic centers were created in US army hospitals and later in the VA hospitals from 1943 to 1945. This article reviews the evolution of the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injuries from the past century to the present. The role of urodynamics in defining neurologic lesions is critical to the appropriate management of the voiding dysfunction. Key advances, such as the diagnosis of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), recognition of its association with autonomic dysreflexia, and its definitive management, have been emphasized. The role of transrectal linear array sonography using a rectal probe was found useful for defining bladder outlet dysfunction during urodynamics. It also helped to recognize secondary bladder neck obstruction and diagnose false passages in the urethra. Clean technique intermittent catheterization (IC) was evaluated and recommended. In about 28% patients with DSD that led to secondary bladder neck obstruction, a consequence of IC was reported. Transurethral laser sphincterotomy (TURS) was first reported by me in 1991, and later, durable 7-year follow-up results were reported in 78% of the first 99 patients. We reported a surgical technique to lengthen the penis. We also reported the long-term success with semirigid implants in 92% of patients with SCI. This technique helped maintain external condom drainage on a small phallus and improved the sex life of patients, as well as their quality of life. The author's pertinent areas of interest in the past one-half century were aimed at recognizing specific urologic problems associated with neurologic impairment. Management was aimed at preventive care, early recognition, and timely management to reduce secondary complications and enhance quality of life.

    View details for PubMedID 15484669

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