Steven Shafer

Publication Details

  • Mixed-effects modeling of the intrinsic ventilatory depressant potency of propofol in the non-steady state ANESTHESIOLOGY Bouillon, T., Bruhn, J., Radu-Radulescu, L., Andresen, C., Cohane, C., Shafer, S. L. 2004; 100 (2): 240-250


    Despite the ubiquitous use of propofol for anesthesia and conscious sedation and numerous publications about its effect, a pharmacodynamic model for propofol-induced ventilatory depression in the non-steady state has not been described. To investigate propofol-induced ventilatory depression in the clinically important range (at and below the metabolic hyperbola while carbon dioxide is accumulating because of drug-induced ventilatory depression), the authors applied indirect effect modeling to Paco2 data at a fraction of inspired carbon dioxide of 0 during and after administration of propofol.Ten volunteers underwent determination of their carbon dioxide responsiveness by a rebreathing design. The parameters of a power function were fitted to the end-expiratory carbon dioxide and minute ventilation data. The volunteers then received propofol in a stepwise ascending pattern with use of a target-controlled infusion pump until significant ventilatory depression occurred (end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide > 65 mmHg and/or imminent apnea). Thereafter, the concentration was reduced to 1 microg/ml. Propofol pharmacokinetics and the Paco2 were determined from frequent arterial blood samples. An indirect response model with Bayesian estimates of the pharmacokinetics and carbon dioxide responsiveness in the absence of drug was used to describe the Paco2 time course. Because propofol reduces oxygen requirements and carbon dioxide production, a correction factor for propofol-induced decreasing of carbon dioxide production was included.The following pharmacodynamic parameters were found to describe the time course of hypercapnia after administration of propofol (population mean and interindividual variability expressed as coefficients of variation): F (gain of the carbon dioxide response), 4.37 +/- 36.7%; ke0, CO2, 0.95 min-1 +/- 59.8%; baseline Paco2, 40.9 mmHg +/- 12.8%; baseline minute ventilation, 6.45 l/min +/- 36.3%; kel, CO2, 0.11 min-1 +/- 34.2%; C50,propofol, 1.33 microg/ml +/- 49.6%; gamma, 1.68 +/- 21.3%.Propofol at common clinical concentrations is a potent ventilatory depressant. An indirect response model accurately described the magnitude and time course of propofol-induced ventilatory depression. The indirect response model can be used to optimize propofol administration to reduce the risk of significant ventilatory depression.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188438500008

    View details for PubMedID 14739795

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