Richard A. Jaffe

Publication Details

  • Indocyanine green - Evidence of neurotoxicity in spinal root axons ANESTHESIOLOGY Dietz, F. B., Jaffe, R. A. 2003; 98 (2): 516-520


    The inadvertent intravascular injection of a local anesthetic during epidural anesthesia is an uncommon but potentially serious complication. Epinephrine, the most commonly used marker, does not provide sufficient sensitivity to exclude intravascular injection in all patient populations. The dye indocyanine green (ICG) has been proposed as an alternative marker. It has been demonstrated that ICG could be used to detect intravascular injections with a simple transcutaneous spectrophotometric technique. Although the safety of intravenous ICG is well documented, its neurotoxic potential requires careful study given the probability of inadvertent intrathecal injection during test injections used to verify epidural catheter placement.In this study, the authors investigated the neurophysiologic effects of clinically relevant concentrations of ICG (range, 28.6-286 microm) on single myelinated and unmyelinated dorsal root axons in rats by measuring effects on impulse generation and conduction.In contrast to the apparent absence of toxicity when injected intravenously, ICG applied to intact dorsal roots at concentrations likely to be encountered with an epidural test dose produced long-lasting conduction block (21 of 26 axons) or spontaneous bursting activity (7 of 26 axons) in myelinated and unmyelinated dorsal root axons.Given this apparent neurotoxicity, ICG should not be used when intrathecal or nerve root injection is possible.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180691200032

    View details for PubMedID 12552213

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