Neville H. Golden M.D.

Publication Details

  • A review of the female athlete triad (amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disordered eating). International journal of adolescent medicine and health Golden, N. H. 2002; 14 (1): 9-17


    The number of women participating in organized sports has increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The female athlete triad is a condition seen with increasing frequency in young athletes and is characterized by the triad of amenorrhea, disordered eating and osteoporosis. The triad is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and can be associated with significant medical morbidity. It occurs most frequently in sports emphasizing a lean appearance. Early recognition and intervention are essential. In an adolescent athlete, amenorrhea should be considered an indicator of a potential problem and should not simply be attributed to a consequence of training. The athlete should be evaluated for an underlying eating disorder and tested for osteoporosis. Principles of treatment include reducing the intensity of training until menses resume, increasing caloric intake, ensuring adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, encouraging weight-bearing exercise where appropriate, and consideration of hormone replacement therapy. Prevention, through education will help ensure the health and safety of young female athletes.

    View details for PubMedID 12467202

Stanford Medicine Resources:

Footer Links: