Michael Longaker

Publication Details

  • Proliferative hemangiomas: Analysis of cytokine gene expression and angiogenesis PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Chang, J., Most, D., Bresnick, S., Mehrara, B., Steinbrech, D. S., Reinisch, J., Longaker, M. T., Turk, A. E. 1999; 103 (1): 1-9

    Abstract:

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of childhood that can lead to disfigurement and/or life-threatening consequences. The pathogenesis of hemangioma formation is likely to involve increased angiogenesis. Basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are cytokines that stimulate angiogenesis in multiple in vivo and in vitro models. Proliferative hemangiomas have been found to have elevated levels of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor protein, but the gene expression of these cytokines in human specimens has not been previously studied. We examined the gene expression and spatial distribution of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA in proliferative versus involuted human hemangioma specimens using nonisotopic in situ hybridization techniques. Thirteen hemangioma specimens were harvested during initial surgical excision. In situ hybridization was performed on frozen sections of both proliferative and involuted hemangioma specimens using genetically engineered antisense probes specific for basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA. Controls were an interleukin-6 sense sequence and a transforming growth factor-beta 1 antisense sequence. A large number of cells within the specimens of proliferative hemangiomas revealed localized gene expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (626 +/- 129 and 1660 +/- 371 cells/mm2, respectively). The majority of the cells were endothelial in origin. In contrast, involuted hemangioma specimens revealed significantly lower numbers of cells staining positive for basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (44 +/- 11 and 431 +/- 76 cells/mm2, respectively; p < 0.05). Transforming growth factor-beta 1 messenger RNA was slightly more expressed by involuted hemangiomas (117 +/- 30 cells/mm2). There were very low levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene expression from proliferative hemangiomas (37 +/- 24 cells/mm2; p < 0.02). These data demonstrate that (1) in situ hybridization allows identification and relative quantitation of cells expressing messenger RNA for specific growth factors in human hemangioma specimens; (2) basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA are up-regulated in proliferative hemangiomas; and (3) transforming growth factor-beta 1 messenger RNA remains low in both proliferative and involuted hemangiomas. Because basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA have been implicated in the pathobiology of human hemangioma formation, biochemical modulation of these angiogenic cytokines may eventually help inhibit proliferation and promote regression of hemangiomas.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077707200001

    View details for PubMedID 9915157

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