Steven Shafer

Publication Details

  • Pharmacokinetics of intravenous dynorphin A(1-13) in opioid-naive and opioid-treated human volunteers CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Gambus, P. L., Schnider, T. W., Minto, C. F., Youngs, E. J., Billard, V., Brose, W. G., Hochhaus, G., Shafer, S. L. 1998; 64 (1): 27-38


    Dynorphin A(1-13) is a fragment of the endogenous opioid neuropeptide dynorphin A. Previous research suggested that intravenously administered dynorphin A(1-13) has the ability to modulate morphine-induced analgesia. We designed this study to characterize the disposition of intravenous dynorphin immunoreactivity in humans and to determine whether concomitant long-term opioid therapy influenced the pharmacokinetics or side-effects profile of dynorphin A(1-13).The study subjects comprised 20 volunteers divided into two groups of 10 each, stratified by dose (low dose, 250 micrograms/kg; high dose, 1000 micrograms/kg). There were four volunteers receiving long-term opioid therapy and six opioid-naive volunteers (nonopioid group) within each dosing group. Dynorphin A(1-13) was infused over 10 minutes, and arterial blood samples were drawn and assayed for dynorphin immunoreactivity. A population modeling approach was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics. Dynorphin effects on heart rate and arterial blood pressure were also studied.The pharmacokinetics of dynorphin immunoreactivity were linear over the dose range studied and were best described by a three-compartment mammillary model whose parameters were volume 1, 5.0 L; volume 2, 0.80 L; volume 3, 12 L; clearance 1, 6.0 L/min; clearance 2, 0.054 L/min; and clearance 3, 0.044 L/min. Concomitant opioid medication did not affect the disposition of dynorphin immunoreactivity. Tachycardia and flushing were commonly observed side effects. The incidence of side effects was dose dependent and was not influenced by long-term opioid use.Intravenously administered dynorphin A(1-13) is very rapidly metabolized, on the basis of the time course of immunoreactivity in the blood. Long-term opioid therapy did not influence either the pharmacokinetics or incidence of side effects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075103400004

    View details for PubMedID 9695716

Stanford Medicine Resources:

Footer Links: