Philip A. Pizzo, M.D.

Publication Details

  • A phase I/II study of the protease inhibitor ritonavir in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Nelson, R. P., Sleasman, J., Zuckerman, J., Heath-Chiozzi, M., STEINBERG, S. M., BALIS, F. M., Brouwers, P., Hsu, A., Saulis, R., Sei, S., Wood, L. V., Zeichner, S., Katz, T. T., Higham, C., Aker, D., Edgerly, M., Jarosinski, P., Serchuck, L., WHITCUP, S. M., Pizzuti, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1998; 101 (3): 335-343


    Ritonavir, a potent antiretroviral protease inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In a phase I/II study, we assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of the oral solution of ritonavir in HIV-infected children and studied the preliminary antiviral and clinical effects.HIV-infected children between 6 months and 18 years of age were eligible. Four dose levels of ritonavir oral solution (250, 300, 350, and 400 mg/m given every 12 hours) were evaluated in two age groups (2 years). Ritonavir was administered alone for the first 12 weeks and then in combination with zidovudine and/or didanosine. Clinical and laboratory parameters were monitored every 2 to 4 weeks.A total of 48 children (median age, 7.7 years; range, 0.5 to 14.4 years) were included in this analysis. Dose-related nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain were the most common toxicities and resulted in discontinuation of ritonavir in 7 children. Ritonavir was well absorbed at all dose levels, and plasma concentrations reached a peak 2 to 4 hours after a dose. CD4 cells counts increased by a median of 79 cells/mm3 after 4 weeks of monotherapy and were maintained throughout the study. Plasma HIV RNA decreased by 1 to 2 log10 copies/mL within 4 to 8 weeks of ritonavir monotherapy, and this level was sustained in patients enrolled at the highest dose level of 400 mg/m for the 24-week period.The oral solution of ritonavir has potent antiretroviral activity as a single agent and is relatively well tolerated by children when administered alone or in combination with zidovudine or didanosine.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072362800002

    View details for PubMedID 9480994

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