Steven Shafer

Publication Details

  • A comparison of spectral edge, delta power, and bispectral index as EEG measures of alfentanil, propofol, and midazolam drug effect CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Billard, V., Gambus, P. L., Chamoun, N., Stanski, D. R., Shafer, S. L. 1997; 61 (1): 45-58


    The effects of anesthetic drugs on electroencephalograms (EEG) have been studied to develop the EEG as a measure of anesthetic depth. Bispectral analysis is a new quantitative technique that measures the consistency of the phase and power relationships and returns a single measure, the bispectral index. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the bispectral index, version 1.1, with other spectral analysis EEG measures of drug effect for three commonly used anesthetic drugs.The EEG waveforms from 31 adults receiving infusions of alfentanil, propofol, or midazolam were analyzed. The time course of spectral edge (SE95), relative power in delta band, and bispectral index were related to the estimated effect-site concentration with use of a sigmoidal Emax model to estimate the potency (IC50) and the plasma effect-site equilibration rate constant (Ke0) for each measure. The performance of the fitting was assessed by the coefficient of correlation between predicted and observed effect.Alfentanil induced a high-amplitude low-frequency EEG response. Propofol induced a biphasic response. At low concentrations, both frequency and amplitude increased. When the concentration increased, the EEG slowed and the amplitude decreased. High concentration produced burst suppression. Midazolam increased EEG frequency and amplitude. Bispectral index, SE95, and delta power yield similar estimates of IC50 and ke0. Except for alfentanil, the performance of the modeling with the bispectral index was as good that with SE95 or delta power.Bispectral analysis can be used as a measure of the EEG effects of anesthetic drugs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WF29100006

    View details for PubMedID 9024173

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