Steven Shafer

Publication Details

  • Semilinear canonical correlation applied to the measurement of the electroencephalographic effects of midazolam and flumazenil reversal ANESTHESIOLOGY Schnider, T. W., Minto, C. F., Fiset, P., Gregg, K. M., Shafer, S. L. 1996; 84 (3): 510-519


    The electroencephalographic (EEG) effect of benzodiazepines, and midazolam in particular, has been described using simple measures such as total power in the beta band, waves.s(-1) in the beta band and total power from aperiodic analysis. All these parameters failed to consistently describe the EEG effect of midazolam in a study in which large doses of midazolam were infused, and the effect subsequently reversed with flumazenil. Using a technique called semilinear correlation it is possible to extract a parameter from the EEG that is statistically optimally correlated with the apparent concentration of the benzodiazepine in the effect site. This method has been used to develop new univariate measures of the effects of opioids on the EEG but has not previously been applied to the EEG effects of benzodiazepines.Data from ten subjects who received an infusion of midazolam were analyzed. The data were divided into "learning" and "test" sets. The learning set consisted of ten studies in which the volunteers received an infusion of 2.5 mg.min(-1) midazolam. Semilinear canonical correlation was used to extract an univariate descriptor of the EEG effect by weighting the different frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum. The test set comprised the same subjects on subsequent visits, in which the subjects received a continuous infusion of midazolam to maintain 20% or 80% of the peak drug effect for 3h. Twenty minutes after start of the midazolam infusion, the patient received an infusion of flumazenil to acutely reverse the benzodiazepine drug effect. The weights obtained from the learning set were tested prospectively in the test set, based on the coefficient of multiple determination, R(2), obtained by fitting the EEG effect to a sigmoid Emax model.The canonical univariate parameter of benzodiazepine drug effect on the EEG, when applied to the test set receiving the midazolam infusion with flumazenil reversal, yielded a median R(2) of 0.78. The median R(2) of six commonly used empirical EEG measures of drug effect ranged from 0.18 to 0.55.The canonical univariate parameter for benzodiazepine drug effect on the EEG correlates more accurately and consistently with the predicted EEG effects of midazolam and its reversal than previously reported EEG measures of benzodiazepine effect.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UA37700005

    View details for PubMedID 8659777

Stanford Medicine Resources:

Footer Links: