Steven Shafer

Publication Details

  • COMPUTER-CONTROLLED EPIDURAL INFUSION TO TARGETED CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMANS ANESTHESIOLOGY Eisenach, J. C., Hood, D. D., Tuttle, R., Shafer, S., Smith, T., Tong, C. Y. 1995; 83 (1): 33-47

    Abstract:

    Pharmacokinetically designed infusions have been demonstrated to achieve rapidly and maintain desired concentrations of drug in plasma after intravenous administration. In this study we tested whether a similar approach, targeting concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), could be used with epidural administration of the alpha 2-adrenergic analgesic clonidine.After institutional review board approval and informed consent had been obtained, seven healthy volunteers received a clonidine infusion through a lower lumbar epidural catheter. Infusion of clonidine (10 micrograms/ml) was controlled by the STANPUMP program for sequential 75-min periods to targeted CSF clonidine concentrations of 25, 50, 75, and 150 ng/ml. Before reprogramming to the next higher targeted concentration, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured; blood was obtained for clonidine and catecholamine assays; and visual analog score for sedation and pain to immersion of foot and hand in ice water were obtained. CSF was collected during infusion with an indwelling lumbar intrathecal catheter and was analyzed for clonidine, catecholamines, and acetylcholine.CSF clonidine concentrations rapidly increased and were maintained at steady values with the stepped infusion, although observed concentrations were consistently greater than targeted. The relation between CSF clonidine concentration and analgesia in the foot was similar to that previously observed after epidural bolus administration. Clonidine also was associated with concentration-dependent sedation; decreased mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and CSF norepinephrine concentration; and increased CSF acetylcholine concentration.This study suggests that pharmacokinetically designed infusions of drugs in the epidural space in humans can maintain steady concentrations of drug in CSF. In addition to providing a useful tool for investigation of mechanisms of action and drug interactions, this technique may improve analgesia and diminish side effects from epidurally administered analgesics.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RH99900005

    View details for PubMedID 7605017

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