Hendrikus Lemmens

Publication Details

  • PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC EFFECTS OF FLUMAZENIL IN HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS SEDATED WITH MIDAZOLAM CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS Fiset, P., Lemmens, H. L., Egan, T. E., Shafer, S. L., Stanski, D. R. 1995; 58 (5): 567-582

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study was to model pharmacodynamically the reversal of midazolam sedation with flumazenil. Ten human volunteers underwent four different sessions. In session 1, individual midazolam pharmacokinetics and electroencephalographic pharmacodynamics were determined. In sessions 2 and 3, a computer-controlled infusion of midazolam with individual volunteer pharmacokinetic data was administered, targeting a plasma concentration corresponding to a light or deep level of sedation (20% or 80% of the maximal midazolam electroencephalographic effect) for a period of 210 minutes. After obtaining a stable electroencephalographic effect and constant midazolam plasma concentrations, a zero-order infusion of flumazenil was started until complete reversal of midazolam electroencephalographic effect was obtained. The flumazenil infusion was then stopped and the volunteer was allowed to resedate because of the constant midazolam drug effect. The electroencephalographic response was measured during a 180-minute period and analyzed by aperiodic analysis and fast-Fourier transforms. In session 4, a midazolam plasma concentration corresponding to a deep level of sedation was targeted for 210 minutes to examine for the possible development of acute tolerance. No flumazenil was given in session 4. For a light sedation level, with a mean midazolam plasma concentration of 160 +/- 64 ng/ml, the mean half-life of the equilibration rate constant of flumazenil reversal is 5.0 +/- 2.5 minutes, and the mean effect site concentration causing 50% of Emax is 13.7 +/- 5.8 ng/ml. For a deep level of sedation, with a mean midazolam plasma concentration of 551 +/- 196 ng/ml, the mean half-life of the equilibration rate constant is 3.9 +/- 1.5 minutes, and the mean effect site concentration causing 50% of Emax is 20.6 +/- 6.8 ng/ml. This study provides an estimate of the magnitude of the blood/central nervous system equilibration delay for flumazenil antagonism of midazolam sedation and further defines the usefulness of the electroencephalogram as a measure of midazolam pharmacodynamic effect.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TH58600011

    View details for PubMedID 7586951

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