David N. Cornfield

Publication Details

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome in children: physiology and management. Current opinion in pediatrics Cornfield, D. N. 2013; 25 (3): 338-343

    Abstract:

    The present review seeks to review the pathophysiologic processes that underlie the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children. The review intends to provide the physiologic foundation for the treatment strategies that are associated with the most optimal outcome.In infants and children, ARDS remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although any infant or child can develop ARDS, children who have experienced trauma, pneumonia, aspiration, or immune compromise are at increased risk. Data indicate that adoption of an open-lung ventilation strategy, characterized by sufficient positive end-expiratory pressure to avoid atelectasis, a tidal volume that is limited to less than 5-7?cc/kg per breath and a plateau pressure of 30?cm of water or less provides the greatest likelihood of survival and minimizes lung injury. The relative benefits of strategies such as high frequency oscillatory ventilation, surfactant replacement therapy and inhaled nitric oxide are considered.ARDS remains a cause of significant mortality and morbidity in children. By employing sound physiologic principles, clinical outcomes can be optimized.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOP.0b013e328360bbe7

    View details for PubMedID 23657244

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