Emmanuel Mignot

Publication Details

  • Predictors of Hypocretin (Orexin) Deficiency in Narcolepsy Without Cataplexy SLEEP Andlauer, O., Moore, H., Hong, S., Dauvilliers, Y., Kanbayashi, T., Nishino, S., Han, F., Silber, M. H., Rico, T., Einen, M., Kornum, B. R., Jennum, P., Knudsen, S., Nevsimalova, S., Poli, F., Plazzi, G., Mignot, E. 2012; 35 (9): 1247-1255

    Abstract:

    To compare clinical, electrophysiologic, and biologic data in narcolepsy without cataplexy with low (? 110 pg/ml), intermediate (110-200 pg/ml), and normal (> 200 pg/ml) concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1.University-based sleep clinics and laboratories.Narcolepsy without cataplexy (n = 171) and control patients (n = 170), all with available CSF hypocretin-1.Retrospective comparison and receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Patients were also recontacted to evaluate if they developed cataplexy by survival curve analysis.The optimal cutoff of CSF hypocretin-1 for narcolepsy without cataplexy diagnosis was 200 pg/ml rather than 110 pg/ml (sensitivity 33%, specificity 99%). Forty-one patients (24%), all HLA DQB1*06:02 positive, had low concentrations (? 110 pg/ml) of CSF hypocretin-1. Patients with low concentrations of hypocretin-1 only differed subjectively from other groups by a higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score and more frequent sleep paralysis. Compared with patients with normal hypocretin-1 concentration (n = 117, 68%), those with low hypocretin-1 concentration had higher HLA DQB1*06:02 frequencies, were more frequently non-Caucasians (notably African Americans), with lower age of onset, and longer duration of illness. They also had more frequently short rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep latency (? 15 min) during polysomnography (64% versus 23%), and shorter sleep latencies (2.7 ± 0.3 versus 4.4 ± 0.2 min) and more sleep-onset REM periods (3.6 ± 0.1 versus 2.9 ± 0.1 min) during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Patients with intermediate concentrations of CSF hypocretin-1 (n = 13, 8%) had intermediate HLA DQB1*06:02 and polysomnography results, suggesting heterogeneity. Of the 127 patients we were able to recontact, survival analysis showed that almost half (48%) with low concentration of CSF hypocretin-1 had developed typical cataplexy at 26 yr after onset, whereas only 2% had done so when CSF hypocretin-1 concentration was normal. Almost all patients (87%) still complained of daytime sleepiness independent of hypocretin status.Objective (HLA typing, MSLT, and sleep studies) more than subjective (sleepiness and sleep paralysis) features predicted low concentration of CSF hypocretin-1 in patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy.

    View details for DOI 10.5665/sleep.2080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308360100012

    View details for PubMedID 22942503

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