Sara Michie

Publication Details

  • Protein polymer hydrogels: Effects of endotoxin on biocompatibility. Journal of biomaterials applications Beenken-Rothkopf, L. N., Karfeld-Sulzer, L. S., Zhang, X., Kissler, H., Michie, S. A., Kaufman, D. B., Fontaine, M. J., Barron, A. E. 2013; 28 (3): 395-406


    Protein polymer-based hydrogels have shown potential for tissue engineering applications, but require biocompatibility testing for in vivo use. Enzymatically crosslinked protein polymer-based hydrogels were tested in vitro and in vivo to evaluate their biocompatibility. Endotoxins present in the hydrogel were removed by Trition X-114 phase separation. The reduction of endotoxins decreased TNF-α production by a macrophage cell line in vitro; however, significant inflammatory response was still present compared to collagen control gels. A branched PEG molecule and dexamethasone were added to the hydrogel to reduce the response. In vitro testing showed a decrease in the TNF-α levels with the addition of dexamethasone. In vivo implantations into the epididymal fat pad of C57/BL6 mice, however, indicated a decreased inflammatory mediated immune response with a hydrogel treated with both PEGylation and endotoxin reduction. This study demonstrates the importance of endotoxin testing and removal in determining the biocompatibility of biomaterials.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0885328212454555

    View details for PubMedID 22832218

Stanford Medicine Resources:

Footer Links: