James Ford

Publication Details

  • BIOCHEMICAL CORRELATES OF THE ANTITUMOR AND ANTIMITOCHONDRIAL PROPERTIES OF GOSSYPOL ENANTIOMERS MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY Benz, C. C., Keniry, M. A., Ford, J. M., Townsend, A. J., COX, F. W., PALAYOOR, S., Matlin, S. A., Hait, W. N., COWAN, K. H. 1990; 37 (6): 840-847

    Abstract:

    Racemic gossypol has been shown to have antitumor properties that may be due to its ability to uncouple tumor mitochondria or to its inhibitory effects on a variety of nonmitochondrial enzymes. We have studied the antimitochondrial and enzyme-inhibiting properties of gossypol in human carcinoma cell lines of breast (MCF-7, T47-D), ovarian (OVCAR-3) colon (HCT-8), and pancreatic (MiaPaCa) origin by comparing the effects of its purified (+)- and (-)-enantiomers. (-)-Gossypol shows up to 10-fold greater antiproliferative activity than (+)-gossypol in the cancer cell lines and in normal hematopoietic stem cells grown in vitro, with IC50 values ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 microM for the cancer cells and from 10 to 20 microM for the human marrow stem cells. As well, multidrug-resistant MCF/Adr cells appear more resistant to (-)-gossypol than their parental cell line. Electron microscopy indicates that the earliest ultrastructural change in tumor cells exposed to a cytotoxic (10 microM) concentration of (-)-gossypol is the selective destruction of their mitochondria. Consistent with this observation, 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects pronounced changes in tumor cell high energy phosphate metabolism within 24 hr of (-)-gossypol treatment, manifest by 1.6- to greater than 50-fold differential reductions in the intracellular ratios of ATP/Pi, relative to (+)-gossypol-treated cell lines; the magnitude of these antimitochondrial effects correlates with the antiproliferative activity of (-)-gossypol. Northern blot RNA analyses suggest that treatment with a 5-10 microM dose of (-)-gossypol induces a transient increase in the expression of heat shock gene products, particularly hsp-70 transcripts. The mean 5-fold increase in (-)-gossypol-induced hsp-70 mRNA appears coincident with a comparable heat-stimulated increase in transcript levels, as compared with control or (+)-gossypol-treated cells. The enzyme-inhibiting properties of gossypol enantiomers were compared in cell-free assays measuring glutathione-S-transferase-alpha, -mu, and pi activities, calmodulin stimulation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and protein kinase C activity. Both enantiomers are near equivalent antagonists of calmodulin stimulation and protein kinase C activity, exceeding the potency of known inhibitors such as phenothiazines by as much as 50-fold. In contrast, (-)-gossypol is a 3-fold more potent inhibitor of glutathione-S-transferase-alpha and -pi isozyme activity, resulting in IC50 values of 1.6 and 7.0 microM, respectively, for these two isozymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK97800011

    View details for PubMedID 2193225

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