Alexander Tzabazis

Publication Details

  • The Orofacial Formalin Test in Mice Revisited-Effects of Formalin Concentration, Age, Morphine and Analysis Method JOURNAL OF PAIN Bornhof, M., Ihmsen, H., Schwilden, H., Yeomans, D. C., Tzabazis, A. 2011; 12 (6): 633-639


    The orofacial formalin test is established in rats and was recently transferred to mice. The aim of this study was to determine the ideal formalin concentration for testing analgesic drugs, to examine alternatives for the assessment of nociceptive and non-nociceptive behavior as well as the effects of morphine and age on formalin-induced nociception. Formalin (.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15%) was injected into the vibrissa of mice. The cumulative nociceptive behavior was measured as well as nociceptive and non-nociceptive behavior based on a score that was recorded over a 5-second observation period once per minute. We also examined the effects of morphine on the nociceptive response induced by 2.5% formalin. Age-dependent differences were tested in the third part of the experiment. NONMEM was used to model the pharmacodynamic effects of formalin and morphine. Injection of formalin lead to a concentration-dependent increase in cumulative nociceptive behavior ratings as well as the specific nociceptive behavior 3 of scratching injection site with hindpaw (score 3). The formalin concentrations that lead to 50% of the maximum effect were 2.6 and 3.3%, respectively, for the continuous rating method and the scoring method. Morphine dose dependently suppressed the nociceptive behavior and the number of score 3 ratings of the nociceptive behavior. Age differences in behavior could not be detected by either analytic method.To improve the existing behavioral nociceptive assay for pain processed by the trigeminal system, we determined an ideal formalin concentration for the orofacial formalin test in mice, evaluated alternative timesaving analysis approaches, and investigated effects of morphine and age on formalin-induced nociception.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpain.2010.11.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291959100003

    View details for PubMedID 21481645

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