Neeraja Kambham

Publication Details

  • Obesity-related glomerulopathy: An emerging epidemic KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Kambham, N., Markowitz, G. S., Valeri, A. M., Lin, J., D'Agati, V. D. 2001; 59 (4): 1498-1509

    Abstract:

    We report the first large renal biopsy-based clinicopathologic study on obesity-related glomerulopathy.Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI)> 30 kg/m2. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) was defined morphologically as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and glomerulomegaly (O-FSGS; N = 57) or glomerulomegaly alone (O-GM; N = 14).Review of 6818 native renal biopsies received from 1986 to 2000 revealed a progressive increase in biopsy incidence of ORG from 0.2% in 1986-1990 to 2.0% in 1996-2000 (P = 0.0001). Mean BMI in ORG was 41.7 (range 30.9 to 62.7). Indications for renal biopsy included proteinuria (N = 40) or proteinuria and renal insufficiency (N = 31). Seventy-one patients with ORG were compared to 50 patients with idiopathic FSGS (I-FSGS). Patients with ORG were older (mean 42.9 vs. 32.6 years, P < 0.001) and more often Caucasian (75% vs. 52%; P = 0.003). ORG patients had a lower incidence of nephrotic range proteinuria (48% vs. 66%; P = 0.007) and nephrotic syndrome (5.6% vs. 54%; P < 0.001), with higher serum albumin (3.9 vs. 2.9 g/dL; P < 0.001), lower serum cholesterol (229 vs. 335 mg/dL; P < 0.001), and less edema (35% vs. 68%; P = 0.003). On renal biopsy, patients with ORG had fewer lesions of segmental sclerosis (10 vs. 39%; P < 0.001), more glomerulomegaly (100% vs. 10%; P < 0.001), and less extensive foot process effacement (40 vs. 75%; P < 0.001). Glomerular diameter in ORG (mean 226 mu) was significantly larger than age- and sex-matched normal controls (mean 168 mu; P < 0.001). Follow-up was available in 56 ORG patients (mean 27 months) and 50 idiopathic FSGS controls (mean 38 months). A total of 75% of ORG patients received angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition or A2 blockade while 78% of the I-FSGS patients received immunosuppressive therapy. ORG patients had less frequent doubling of serum creatinine (14.3% vs. 50%; P < 0.001) and progression to ESRD (3.6% vs. 42%; P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, presenting serum creatinine and severity of proteinuria were the only predictors of poor outcome in ORG.ORG is distinct from idiopathic FSGS, with a lower incidence of nephrotic syndrome, more indolent course, consistent presence of glomerulomegaly, and milder foot process fusion. The ten-fold increase in incidence over 15 years suggests a newly emerging epidemic. Heightened physician awareness of this entity is needed to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167737200034

    View details for PubMedID 11260414

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