Sprains and Strains

The majority of sports injuries are caused by minor trauma involving muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons, including:

The most commonly sprained or strained joint is the ankle.

The three ligaments involved in ankles sprains/strains include:

Sprains or strains are uncommon in younger children because their growth plates (areas of bone growth located in the ends of long bones) are weaker than the muscles or tendons. Instead, children are prone to fractures.

What is a contusion?

A contusion (bruise) is an injury to the soft-tissue often produced by a blunt force such as a kick, fall, or blow. The immediate result will be pain, swelling, and discoloration.

What is a sprain?

A sprain is a wrenching or twisting injury to a ligament. Sprains often affect the ankles, knees, or wrists.

What is a strain?

A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon, and is often caused by overuse, force, or stretching.

How is a sprain/strain diagnosed?

Your physician makes the diagnosis with a physical examination. During the examination, the physician obtains a complete medical history of the patient and asks how the injury occurred.
Diagnostic procedures may also help evaluate the problem. Diagnostic procedures may include:

What are the symptoms of a sprain or strain?

The following are the most common symptoms of a sprain or strain. However, each person may experience symptoms differently.
Symptoms may include:

The symptoms of a sprain or strain may resemble other conditions. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

Treatment for sprains or strains

Specific treatment for a sprain or strain will be determined by your physician based on:

Initial treatment for a sprain or strain includes R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation). Other treatment options may include:

Be sure to consult your physician if there is a prolonged, visible deformity of the affected area, or if severe pain prevents use of arm, leg, wrist, ankle, or knee.

Long-term outlook for a patient with a sprain or strain

Contusions, sprains, or strains may heal quite quickly, depending on one's age. It is important that the patient adhere to the activity restrictions and/or stretching and strengthening rehabilitation programs to prevent re-injury.

Most sports injuries are due to either traumatic injury or overuse of muscles or joints. Many sports injuries can be prevented with proper conditioning and training, wearing appropriate protective gear, and using proper equipment.

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